In terms of infrastructure, China has the advantage over the other four countries. The less developed countries tend to have the poorer infrastructure, which can cause production to halt. In addition, power cuts and increased transportation times can hinder production. Further, inspections take longer in less developed countries, and public transportation systems in these countries are not as developed. For these reasons, China is a top garment exporter. China’s infrastructure and labor standards also make it a preferred location for garment production.
Bangladesh’s textile industry
China remains the world’s largest apparel producer and the top garments exporter country for Bangladesh. However, China’s policies have hurt Bangladesh’s garment exports, affecting the country’s growth prospects. The country has recently extended its duty-free access to garments from the least developed countries of Asia, including Bangladesh. These benefits cover 299 different types of garments, including jute and leather, and live and frozen fish.
China’s advanced technology and labor force have helped it capture more than half of the global garments market. However, the United States has caught up to China and now stands second in the rankings. Germany, meanwhile, is a close second, with an export value of $40 billion. While Germany is the top garments exporter, it has changed its mindset from being obsessed with producing more products at lower prices. It has adapted the best practices of other countries to compete in the international market.
The top garments exporter country is China, as it accounts for almost a third of global clothing exports.
Despite this, India, the Philippines, and Hungary are all experiencing declines in their apparel exports. Meanwhile, Myanmar and Armenia experienced a 70 percent increase. However, China is still the world’s largest apparel exporter, accounting for nearly 30 percent of global exports. And it’s still only the beginning.
While China’s minimum wage reflects official mandated rates, many manufacturers still operate illegally and pay their workers less than the minimum wage. China’s labor costs are rising and importers are turning to lower-wage countries like India. This is reducing China’s competitive edge. However, this does not mean that India and Bangladesh are dead in the water. Those nations, along with the United States, are among the top three garments exporter countries.
The Chinese market is the world’s largest for apparel exports, but it is becoming less competitive as China has extended duty-free access to Bangladeshi garments. It is estimated that Bangladesh could sell $25 billion worth of garments to the Chinese market if local suppliers could capture 1% of that market. But, as of the time of this writing, Bangladesh’s share in China’s apparel exports stands at just 0.05 percent – the equivalent of $1 billion. The country’s exports to China are falling as the country’s currency depreciates.
The Chinese garment industry is thriving, thanks to advanced technology and a vast labor force. Its share of the global garments market is now more than half that of Bangladesh and India. Germany, meanwhile, is the second-largest exporter of garments, worth $40 billion. But, the German manufacturing sector is undergoing major changes. Its old mindset of producing more but keeping prices low has shifted to a focus on quality and innovation.
According to the World Trade Organization, China is the top global apparel exporter.
China is also the world’s largest producer of textiles and apparel. This is expected to increase by 30.4% in 2020, thanks to a surge in demand for face masks amid the Covid-19 pandemic. However, China’s growth is limited by its regional competitors, who all export much less than China. In 2020, China is projected to be the Top garments exporter country, with a share of 31.6%.
China is the world’s leading garments exporter, with more than half of the total global textile industry’s output. The United States, meanwhile, is one of the leading producers of raw cotton and is the world’s leading garment importer. And India is the world’s third largest textile exporter, responsible for more than $30 billion in total output. But what does this mean for the United States? The apparel industry is worth more than $1 trillion globally.
The Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) is one of the key factors influencing the performance of Indian textiles and apparel. However, there is a need for India to improve its competitiveness as a garments exporter to improve its global trade position. Several policy changes are needed to improve India’s competitiveness in garments exports. A study of the GSP will help to determine whether the changes will have an impact on the export of Indian textiles and apparel to different destinations.
For the textile industry to compete globally, the government must increase the allocation of tax credits and reduce the interest rate to promote technology upgradation. The TUF scheme should be extended till the end of March 2010 to help the garment export sector grow. This increased allocation would further improve the competitiveness of Indian apparel companies and would encourage technology upgradation. At the same time, fresh investments in plant and equipment and the expansion of capacity are key factors in the competitiveness of the Indian garments export industry.
The man-made fiber-based textiles and apparel sector of India has significant advantages.
Its high trade intensity with the United States and the UK is also an advantage. The government should try to increase the export value of these products incrementally, by 10 percent. The CII-Kearney report provides an overview of the recent initiatives taken in the garments export sector. For more information, please visit www.indiana.org.
The main drawbacks of India’s garments exports are its cost disadvantages compared to its key competitors. Power costs in India are 30-40 percent higher than in Bangladesh. Moreover, the lack of free trade agreements and preferential trade agreements has exacerbated India’s disadvantage in the landed cost of goods. India is also using old inefficient machines, and it is lagging behind its competition when it comes to the adoption of modern machinery.
Bangladesh’s minimum wage
For garment workers in Bangladesh, the minimum wage is a matter of bitter frustration. The government’s plans to increase the minimum wage have been rejected by garment workers, who view their livelihoods as the golden goose. The government has held meetings with stakeholders, but so far no results have been seen. In a recent meeting, prime minister Sheikh Hasina announced a 51% increase in the minimum wage for garment workers. While this may sound like a small increase, the new minimum wage in Bangladesh is still higher than in China.
According to the government’s own data, the minimum wage in China is Tk 8,400 ($172) per month, but that’s nowhere near the Tk 16,000 minimum wage. A six-member family needs at least Tk 28,620 ($341) per month, which would pay for basic necessities. In addition to the minimum wage, a garment worker’s basic salary will automatically increase to Tk 38,000 ($185) after five years.
The government is working to address the problem.
It has halted violent protests. It’s likely to be a long process, but there is a clear solution. A seven-seven percent increase in the minimum wage will provide a boost to Bangladesh’s economy.
Despite the increased competition, wage levels in Bangladesh are still competitive with other Asian countries, including China and Vietnam. But the higher wage in China is not a good thing for Bangladesh’s garment industry. Moreover, the Chinese and Vietnamese garment industries also have minimum wages that are much higher than those in Bangladesh. If the government continues to raise these wages, Bangladesh will likely face a significant decrease in its exports and its garment industry.
A significant amount of Mexican textile and apparel exports originate in other countries, including the United States and China. While Mexican textiles and apparel have a higher added value, labor costs in Mexico are more expensive than in Asian nations. In addition, the country’s approach toward China is the largest source of the decline in the competitiveness of Mexican textile and apparel exports. To counter this trend, Mexico’s government is inviting foreign investors to invest in its textile and apparel industries.
The United States and Canada’s 2015 agreement stabilized Mexico’s position in the US import market, but Mexico’s textile and apparel industry wants to expand its reach in other markets, particularly in EU nations and the United Kingdom. Mexico is a large country with a population of 129 million, and its young, affluent population is likely to spend more on clothing than on older people.
In recent years, Mexico has invested in the textile and apparel industry, generating more than $4.2 billion in exports last year, accounting for 20 percent of the country’s total manufacturing employment.
In 2013, Mexico’s textile and apparel industry employed 415,000 workers and served more than two thousand apparel companies in the U.S. The country has also demonstrated the value of this industry for the U.S. market. In 2015, Mexico’s textile and apparel exports increased by nearly 10 percent.
The United States has long been a major textile and apparel importer, and the country’s trade relationship with China has also helped Mexico’s garments sector flourish. Since the year 2000, China has surpassed Mexico as the largest textile and apparel exporter in the US. Despite the benefits of a free trade deal with the United States, the U.S. textile and clothing industry is facing growing competition from the Chinese economy.